The causes of Ureaplasmosis
Ureaplasmosis is an infectious disease that develops in the urogenital tract of a person due to the penetration of a sufficient number of bacteria of the family Mycoplasmataceae of the genus Mycoplasma of the Ureaplasmaurealyticum species. U.urealyticum – small gram-negative colibacillary microorganisms with a diameter of 120 to 750 nm, the name of which derives from the ability to produce urease enzyme that breaks down urea; their DNA contains 27-32% guanine-cytosine pairs; growth is inhibited by ammonium ions and thallium acetate; have soluble (3-hemolysin and protease activity. It is their ability to break down urea, and they differ from other mycoplasmas, which were originally related.
Earlier, two biovars (that is, subspecies) of Ureaplasma urealyticum were isolated:
Currently, these biovars are regarded as two distinct species: Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum, respectively.
Ureaplasmas belong to the so-called opportunistic microorganisms, that is, at high concentrations and in combination with other pathogenic microorganisms, they can cause a number of diseases, but in small quantities have also been found in healthy people. Ureaplasma carriers are about half of women. In men, they are less common, among the male population medical practice are known and cases of self-healing. Often self-healing occurs in mothers who are infected during childbirth, especially in boys.
The causes of ureaplasmosis are the following:
- in the prevailing number of cases, sexual intercourse without barrier contraception;
- transplacental infection (from mother to child) – in neonates, ureaplasma is found in the nasopharynx and on the genitals (mostly in girls);
- extremely rarely – household contacts and the use of common personal hygiene items.
Often the disease is asymptomatic, it is possible that a person may be a carrier of infection, but activation in his body did not happen. Such a person remains a potential peddler of the infection. Mostly males do not experience any painful symptoms, and unprotected sex puts their partners at risk. The activation of the disease occurs under the influence of adverse and stressful factors for the body:
- impaired immunological reactivity of the organism;
- decreased immunity against hypothermia or stress;
- the development of pregnancy or its interruption (abortion);
- operative interventions;
- extragenital pathologies and systemic diseases.
The characteristic symptoms of this infection are not peculiar, she tells about herself the disease developing on his background. Often, ureaplasmosis in men occurs as urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis) or prostatitis. In women, urepalamosis usually takes the form of endocervicitis (cervical inflammation). Also noted is the link ureaplasmosis and cystitis in women. Like many other infectious diseases of the urogenital system, ureaplasmosis is accompanied by:
- itching and burning in the genital area;
- discomfort and pain in the lower abdomen, aggravated by sexual intercourse or urination;
- atypical discharge from the urethra (in men) or the vagina (in women);
- violation of sexual, and sometimes fertile functions.
How to treat ureaplasmosis?
The treatment of ureaplasmosis is in many ways similar to the treatment of mycoplasmosis, the disease itself is often defined as ureamicoplasmosis, since Ureaplasmaurealyticum is one of four types of pathogenic mycobacteria that affect the human urogenital tract.
Depending on the form of the disease (acute, subacute or chronic), various combinations of drugs are used, but they are always comprehensively applied to the treatment.
Ureaplasmosis is usually not treated as an independent disease, but as inflammation resulting from pathogenic microflora or other deviation – urethritis, inflammatory diseases of the uterus and appendages, urolithiasis. With the appropriate diagnosis, the doctor is prescribed an analysis of the pathogenic microflora and in case it turns out to be ureaplasma, specific treatment is prescribed.
For the treatment of ureaplasmosis are used:
- antibiotics – tetracyclines, macrolides, azalides, fluoroquinolones;
- anti-inflammatory drugs (mainly in the presence of a concomitant association);
- antiseptics, for example, chlorhexidine, miramistin, solutions of collargol or protargol;
- immunostimulants and immunomodulators;
- adaptogens – ginseng, Rhodiola rosea, saparal, Echinacea purpurea;
- vitamins and antioxidants;
- biogenic and enzyme preparations;
- hepatoprotectors and probiotics.
The main means in the treatment of ureaplasmosis are antibiotics. They are used topically in the form of gels, ointments, solutions, vaginal suppositories, are taken orally and even intravenous infusions are possible, which improve the bioavailability of the drug and create the opportunity to avoid many of the side effects associated with the passage of the antibiotic through the liver while taking the pills.
What diseases can be associated with
Ureaplasmic infection, penetrating and activating in the human body, causes many inflammatory diseases and chronic disorders. Among them:
- adnexitis – inflammation of the uterine appendages, that is, the pipe, ovary, ligaments;
- bacterial vaginosis is a clinical syndrome triggered by the replacement of lactobacilli of the vaginal flora by conditionally pathogenic anaerobic microorganisms, in particular ureaplasmas;
- infectious arthritis – develops with the spread of ureaplasma outside the genital system, is manifested by damage to the joint when microorganisms from the primary focus are directly injected into its cavity;
- colpitis – inflammation of the mucous membrane of the vagina, under the influence of chemical, thermal, mechanical factors, and in this case against the background of the predominance of pathogenic microflora;
- meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes of the brain or spinal cord that develops as a result of a bacterial infection;
- urolithiasis – the formation of kidney stones;
- pyelonephritis is an acute inflammatory process in the renal parenchyma and the renal plexus system, which develops as a result of the penetration of pathogenic microflora from the primary focus, in particular against the background of untreated ureaplasmosis;
- prostatitis – inflammation of the prostate due to the spread of pathogenic genital microflora, the influence of ureaplasma in this case is not considered proven, but their presence is usually found in the microflora of the patient with prostatitis;
- spontaneous abortions and preterm labor;
- urethritis – inflammation of the urethra, related to sexually transmitted diseases, and as prostatitis, developing as a result of the aggressive spread of ureaplasm;
- cervicitis – an inflammatory process that develops in the cervix under the influence of pathogens penetrated here;
- cystitis – an inflammation of the bladder that develops as a result of the penetration of an infection here;
- endometritis – inflammation of the uterine mucosa;
- cervical erosion – a defect of stratified squamous epithelium on the vaginal part of the cervix, which develops due to the long negative effect of pathogenic microflora on the mucous membrane.
Treatment of ureaplasmosis at home
Treatment of ureaplasmosis usually does not require hospitalization, but is carried out at home. Sometimes the patient is prescribed physiotherapy courses, which may require regular visits to a medical institution.
Usually, the treatment of ureaplasmosis is an oral or topical medication. The treatment is etiotropic in nature, that is, it is aimed at the destruction of the pathogen. The course of drugs, among which antibiotics, must exactly correspond to medical prescriptions, and not be adjusted depending on the well-being and preferences of the patient.
The course of drugs is advisable to supplement the observance of the daily regimen and a balanced diet, the principles of a healthy lifestyle, and, of course, selectivity in sexual matters. For the period of treatment will have to abandon sexual activity, and in the presence of a regular partner to be examined, and probably treatment, it is recommended to him.
What kind of drugs to treat ureaplasmosis?
Drugs for the treatment of mycoplasmosis are prescribed after a thorough examination using modern methodologies. The dosage indicated below is considered to be the average and may be different from that prescribed by the doctor for internal consultation, it is necessary to adhere to the latter.
- Doxycycline – 200 mg in the 1st dose, in subsequent times 100 mg orally 1 time per day; the course of treatment takes from 7 to 21 days;
- Unidox-Solutab – 200 mg in the 1st dose, in subsequent times 100 mg orally 2 times a day; the course of treatment ranges from 10 to 21 days;
- Tetracycline – 500 mg orally 4 times a day for 10-14 days; course dose should not exceed 27 g;
Preparations from the group of macrolides and azalides:
- Zitrolid – 1000 mg in the 1st dose, in subsequent times 500 mg orally 1 time per day; treatment usually lasts 4 days;
- Fromilid – 500 mg orally 2 times a day for 10-14 days;
- Tsiprinol – 500 mg orally 2 times a day for 10-14 days;
- Levofloxacin – 500 mg orally 1 time per day for 5-7 days;
- Norfloxacin – 400-800 mg orally 1 time per day for 7-10 days.
Preparations for local exposure:
- Betadine – vaginal suppositories containing 200 mg of polyvidone iodide, are introduced into the vagina overnight for 14 days;
- Dalatsin – vaginal cream, administered by the dispenser in the amount of 5 g in the vagina at night, the treatment takes 7 days;
- Tetracycline ointment (1-3%) – apply on tampons and enter into the vagina 2 times a day for 10-15 days;
- Erythromycin ointment (1%) – apply on tampons and enter into the vagina 2 times a day for 10-14 days.
Treatment of ureaplasmosis folk methods
Treatment of ureaplasmosis folk remedies is popular among the population, because herbs and plants are widely known, whose extracts have an antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect. However, it is necessary to understand that medicinal extracts are not always sufficiently effective in relation to high concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, it is recommended to combine folk drugs with traditional methods of treatment and coordinate with your doctor.
Among folk remedies, it is necessary to give preference to those recipes that are used to treat a specific disease caused by ureaplasma – cystitis, urethritis, colpitis, endometritis, prostatitis, or other diagnosed. Traditional medicine does not name the names of plants that can overcome it Ureaplasma urealyticum.
Treatment of ureaplasmosis during pregnancy
Treatment of ureaplasmosis during pregnancy should be prompt and as effective as possible. Often against the background of pregnancy is the debut of ureaplasmosis. You can protect yourself from this by performing a test for hidden infections at the planning stage of pregnancy.
If a pregnant woman did not manage to avoid ureaplasmosis, it is recommended to take treatment as a matter of urgency as soon as the disease has been diagnosed. Exacerbation of ureaplasmosis in pregnant women is fraught with the following undesirable consequences:
- abortion, that is, miscarriage,
- missed abortion,
- polyhydramnios and premature discharge of amniotic fluid,
- improper attachment of the placenta,
- preterm labor,
- postpartum infectious complications (including endometritis) for women and the development of ureaplasmosis in the baby.
In the case of severe illness, the eyes, liver, kidneys, nervous system, skin, lymph nodes are affected. Mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas can cause the formation of fetal malformations, acting at the genetic level.
Effective treatment of ureaplasmosis requires the use of antibiotics, which can not have a positive effect on pregnancy. However, the use of the safest drugs in the relevant periods of pregnancy reduces the risks to a minimum, and the positive effect to a maximum. Treatment for ureaplasmosis is usually prescribed from the second trimester, since in the first, any antibiotics can cause significant harm only to the developing fetus.
Macrolide antibiotics become the drugs of choice – their use is characterized by the least toxicity, and the course of treatment is relatively short. Etiotropic treatment of ureaplasmosis is recommended to be supplemented with the use of immunomodulators, vitamins and hepatoprotectors.
Diagnosis of Ureaplasmosis
Diagnosis of ureaplasmosis is carried out with characteristic complaints and a clear clinical picture, as well as with the suspicion of a doctor or patient about a latent infection. First, the doctor collects a history of the patient’s life and illness, then performs a gynecological or urological examination and, if necessary, prescribes one or more of the following diagnostic methods:
- phase contrast microscopy;
- cultural research with the release of mycoplasmas in clinical material, preferably with a quantitative assessment (the so-called bacteriological seeding);
- enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a method of laboratory diagnosis, based on the identification of specific reactions of antigens and antibodies in the sample under study; appropriate in the diagnosis of low-intensity infections;
- the polymerase chain reaction method is inferior in backspace specificity, however, it is indispensable at the stage of taking antibacterial agents.