What is South American Blastomycosis?
South American Blastomycosis (synonyms: paracoccidioidomycosis, paracoccidioidosis, Brazilian blastomycosis, Lutz-Splendor-Almenda disease) is a deep mycosis, characterized by chronic progressive course, ulcerative granulomatous lesions of the skin, mucous membranes and organs, and internal organs.
Causes of South American Blastomycosis
Paracoccidioides (Blastomyces) brasiliensis is a biphasic mushroom; in tissues in the form of budding cells (10-50 microns), on nutrient media forms mycelium.
It is found in rural areas with a tropical and subtropical climate. Epidemiology has not been studied.
Symptoms of Blastomycosis South American
The mucous membrane of the mouth and nose is primarily affected, ulcers with a granulomatous bottom arise, slowly increasing in size, the tongue can be destroyed, the vocal cords, teeth fall out. The skin is involved in the process for the second time (the process moves from the mucous membranes), regional lymph nodes are affected, the process can seize the lungs (the process resembles pulmonary tuberculosis), intestines, bones, less often the CNS.
Diagnosis of South American Blastomycosis
The epidemiological data (stay in an endemic area), clinical symptoms are taken into account. The diagnosis is confirmed by the detection of a fungus in granulation tissue (scraping) or in sputum.
Treatment of South American Blastomycosis
Acute forms of pulmonary blastomycosis can result in recovery without the use of anti-mycotic drugs. Chronic pulmonary forms, and especially disseminated, require long-term treatment. In these cases, amphotericin B is prescribed, as with aspergillosis. In recent years, recommending the use of a foreign drug – ketoconazole (Ketoconazole), which is used for long courses. When using relatively small doses of mg / day, adverse reactions were rarely observed, good results were obtained, but in some patients (about 10%) the disease recurred. At a dose of 800 mg / day, adverse reactions were often noted, but complete recovery occurred. With brain damage, the drug is ineffective.
Prevention of Blastomycosis of the South American
Prevention is not developed.