What is Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever?
Bolivian hemorrhagic fever is an acute viral disease, characterized by natural foci, fever, and development of thrombohemorrhagic syndrome. According to the clinical picture is similar to the Argentine hemorrhagic fever.
Causes of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever
The causative agent, named Machupo virus (by the name of the river in the outbreak of the disease) refers to areaviruses. Its properties are similar to the Junin virus, but differ from it in antigenic terms.
The reservoir and source of infection are rodents Calomys callosus, which have a chronic course of infection and excretion of the virus in the urine.
Human infection can occur through water and food contaminated by rodents, as well as inhalation of infected dust. There have been cases of infection of people from a sick person. The disease is observed throughout the year. Distributed in some areas of Bolivia. During the period from 1959 to 1963, out of a total of 4,000–6,000 people living in an endemic region, 750 people suffered from it.
Pathogenesis during Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever
The pathogenesis of the Bolivian fever is not well understood, similar to the pathogenesis of Argentine hemorrhagic fever.
Symptoms of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever
The incubation period lasts from 7 to 14 days. The disease begins gradually. Within a few days, the temperature reaches 39–40 ° C and stays at this level for several days. Hemorrhagic manifestations in the initial period are more common than in Argentine hemorrhagic fever. There may be nasal, gastric, uterine bleeding. The disease lasts 2-3 weeks. In the period of recovery, hair loss is observed.
Diagnosis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever
First of all, epidemiological data are taken into account (stay in endemic foci). Laboratory diagnosis as with Argentine hemorrhagic fever.
Treatment of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever
It has been shown that the introduction of immune plasma significantly reduces mortality (from 16 to 1%) in an experiment on monkeys, the effectiveness of ribavirin (virazole) was shown. Pathogenetic therapy is carried out (rehydration, hemodialysis, etc.).
Prognosis: mortality ranges from 5 to 30%.
Prevention of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever
Specific prevention is not developed. The destruction of rodents living in houses.